The advent of the Sustainable Development Goals, while including new areas such as climate change, economic inequality, innovation, sustainable consumption, peace and justice, among other priorities, served to clearly articulate the scale and scope of the social and environmental challenges we continue to face. A green, fair and inclusive economy should recognize our dependency on the productivity of ecosystems, natural capital, and biodiversity, as it ensures an efficient and wise use of natural resources, without compromising future generations’ prospects. The idea of inclusive green growth is crucial because it addresses market failures and externalities while simultaneously ensuring broader market participation and equity. A focus on sustainable green growth calls into fundamental question the US$1 to $1.2 trillion being spent on subsidies each year for environmentally unsustainable use of fossil fuels, agriculture, water, and fisheries. The chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book.