ABSTRACT

In previous chapters we have noted that, in recent years, militant right-wing extremism has established a prominent position in Russia's political landscape. Combined with the overall role of Russia as a superpower, this has made Russia's right-wing extremist groups desirable partners for players in right-wing extremism in other countries. Concurrently, the official authoritarian powers in Russia have, overtly or covertly, supported—and continue to do so—extreme right organisations abroad. There are a number of reasons for this support. It allows Russia to weaken its international rivals and obtain information from groups that oppose their domestic regimes. The support also puts these foreign groups under an obligation, which can be leveraged for propaganda or classic subversion. During the Yeltsin era and into the 2000s, Russian militant neo-Nazi groups also had another motivation: they wished to win the recognition of their counterparts abroad, and thus to be taken more seriously domestically. It is probable that anti-Putin activities carried out by Russia's right-wing extremists outside Russia were infiltrated by Russia's intelligence agencies. In sum: Russia has become a place where certain influential evolutionary trends in right-wing extremism have appeared, and they have influenced the strategies and tactics of right-wing extremists further afield.