The choice among members of participatory digital culture to express their agreement or rejection of political realities in the form of internet memes reflects the technological affordances of the internet in a world beset by political change. A tendency exists in internet meme scholarship to focus on memes from the standpoint of the USA; however voices from countries other than the USA are also producing contributions on internet memes and culture, politics, and more. For example, Ekdale and Tully examine the ways in which internet users in Kenya appropriated Kenyan popular culture to “reappropriate stereotypes of weakness into aspirations of strength”. Whitney Phillips deliberated on the question of the so-called Obama Joker meme that emerged in early 2009. She sought to understand the meaning of the merging of the two entities, one the 44th President of the USA, the other a real person in a fictional role as the iconic enemy of Batman, the Joker.