This chapter introduces education governance, or how political institutions work together to make public policy. The quality of governance in educational policy may thwart any of the norms of democracy, and navigating the diverse governments of the United States is a thorn in the flesh for educational reformers—although whether that is a bad thing depends on what policymakers think is good policy. The chapter discusses each of the major policy players in educational policy and highlights the diversity of American schools and districts. The primary federal bureaucracy responsible for educational policy is the United States Department of Education, created as the Office of Education in 1867. Federalism extends to the local level also, and school districts fulfill this role in educational policy. In most states school districts are responsible for constructing buildings, hiring and paying teachers, and funding about half of the costs of schooling.