This chapter introduces problem definition, path dependency, and limitations on policy evaluation. Problem definition is among the most difficult aspects of designing public policy. The chapter suggests that a clear problem definition helps legislators and the public perform policy evaluation later. It explores the two major policy responses to the norm of inclusion: federal desegregation orders and federal spending on education through the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). ESEA proved to be more motivational to Southern school districts than court decisions were, but the power of the money was that it was clearly targeted at certain students. ESEA's policymakers thought school districts were ignoring entire categories of students, but especially low-income and racial or ethnic minorities. Policymakers hoped to improve school opportunity by providing extra educational opportunity for these groups. The chapter outlines the difficulties that policymakers have when they try to define a policy problem.