Communist leaders in Hanoi appeared willing, at least for the time being, to pursue a peaceful course. The Party leadership in Hanoi had resisted a decision to escalate the conflict to a higher level of violence, despite appeals from some quarters in the South. For despite Le Duan's optimism about the favorable international situation, Moscow's new global strategy still presented a serious dilemma to the party leadership. Communist historians date the beginning of the new stage as late 1959 and early 1960, when a series of "partial and spontaneous uprisings" broke out in selected areas in the lower Mekong delta and the Central Highlands. According to Communist statistics, during the first six months of the year, there were 2,134 "struggles" in South Vietnam, with more than 500,000 participants. Several provinces, including a number in the delta and along the central coast, had come under the partial control of the revolutionary forces.