Contemporary sociologist Judith Lorber helps to explain the powerful and persisting role of culture in Paradoxes of Gender which focuses on the ways that gender is socially constructed. Stanford M. Lyman s interpretation of gender in American films can also be used to analyze gender in advertising images. Historically, advertisings archetype of the powerful, solitary male is the Marlboro Man, a rugged, cigarette-smoking cowboy. To understand the representations of women and men in the content of popular culture, it is important to look behind the scenes to see how gender shapes the workforce of the culture industries. Male privilege also permeates the music industry, at least as much as it does the other segments of the mass media. Gender's influence is to symbolically annihilate women and girls from children's books, television, and film. Male privilege, a key aspect of how gender works in the social world, is produced in part by the mechanisms of popular culture.