ABSTRACT

The Cuban, Nicaraguan, and Iranian revolutions, like the Vietnamese, were viewed as national liberation movements by their participants. Whereas the Vietnamese revolution opposed colonial French control, the other three were directed against neo-colonialist governments: technically independent but perceived to be instruments of foreign exploitation. Internal societal characteristics and the interrelationship between the subject societies and other nations of the world helped determine which factors were most central to the success of individual revolutionary movements. The Cuban, Nicaraguan, and Iranian revolutions, like the Vietnamese, were viewed as national liberation movements by their participants. A powerful counterrevolution, closing the window of world permissiveness, emerged to block the Arab revolution for democracy in many countries. In modern history the willingness of major powers, such as the United States and the Soviet Union, to stand aside and allow revolutions to occur appeared very dependent on the idiosyncrasies and personal philosophies of top government leaders, in particular Jimmy Carter and Mikhail Gorbachev.