The significance of South and Central Asia lies in the regions' historical challenges, geographical realities, political risks, cultural complexities, and economic possibilities. This chapter begins with a discussion on the regional character of South and Central Asia, considering geographic, political, historical, cultural, and economic relations. It focuses on the regions' demographic concerns. International communication technologies have led to the development of call centers in India from which technical advice or customer service is dispensed to people in the United States or Britain. The impacts of Asian economies are felt worldwide. The political systems at work in Asia interlink with historical, geographic, cultural, and economic issues. Environmental needs are, as in many countries, ranked behind economic growth and national-security interests. Political ecology considers the human adaptation to risk and uncertainty. The chapter closes with a discussion on the global connections of South and Central Asia in the twenty-first century.