In January 2016, a BBC headline read, "Climate Change: 2015 'shattered' global temperature record by wide margin". With the increase in temperature, ice caps are melting, sea levels are rising, and more extreme weather events are occurring. An ignorance or distrust of science has also developed in recent years; climate change is an example of that challenge. Climate change due to anthropogenic forces means that indigenous people in Papua New Guinea and Australia are taking up new methods to address and assess climate change in terms of both practical needs and cosmological worldviews. The debates on climate change have proceeded through several stages of international political negotiation. In 1988, two UN organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), set up the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), composed of scientists and practitioners.