This chapter discusses that the Iraq–United States (US) Status of Forces Agreement, which was approved by branches of the Iraqi government in November and December 2008, was viewed by some as finally setting a deadline for the withdrawal of US forces from Iraq. Iraq's reliance on Iran was in part due to deterioration of its own industrial infrastructure during the 1992-2003 sanctions period and inadequate postinvasion reconstruction. Many Sunni Arabs feared that the invasion would destroy Iraq, which in their view had bravely fought fundamentalist extremism and imperialism. While the new regime faced an insurgency, the Kurdish region was relatively calm. On September 24, 2008, after months of contentious negotiations, Iraq's national legislature passed a long-awaited elections law for province governments. Iraq seemed to lack real sovereignty when it came to the occupation, oil, and the presence of US private military firms.