Violence and Uncertainty
DOI link for Violence and Uncertainty
Violence and Uncertainty book
Community life in Ifugao was disrupted by the occupation of a barrio by state or New Peoples Army soldiers, for short or extended periods of time, or by an eruption of violence. In Ifugao, uncertainty and fear were generated not only from the violence of the contemporary internal political conflict but also from historical experience. Tribal wars were fought within the area designated as Ifugao Province between men of different villages, particularly in times of drought and poor harvest seasons, often involving culturally sanctioned headhunting. Battles for defense of territory and society against Spanish incursions into Ifugao occurred into the 1700s. US colonization of the Philippines, beginning with the Philippine-American war in 1899, brought more violence to Ifugao. Contemporary elderly Ifugao people have clear memories of World War II. State soldiers in the past stole food from Ifugao people or requested that food be given or sold to them.