ABSTRACT

Humanism has provided the basis of modern thought and of a critical attitude. In transcending nature, humans exhibit their authentic humanity and ascend to the ethical, moral, and cultural spheres. The overbearing accent in anti-nature humanism on liberation from nature's determinisms is the wrong emphasis in a period of reflexive modernization when the manipulation of nature turns back to threaten human modernizers. Human mastery over nature is the conception of humanist philosophers who fail to appreciate the strength and creativity of nature. Humanists assert that nature has no intrinsic value, just value attributed by humans. There is no reason why ecology has to be anti-democratic or why democracy has to be coupled with an anti-nature humanism. Proponents have even sought to protect anti-nature humanism against the criticisms of the ecological movement by bringing out heavy rhetorical artillery of association. Anti-nature humanism has a reflexive quality in that its attempts to humanize nature turn against humans.