Economic growth has been seen as the key to prosperity, both in industrialized and developing countries. Although economic growth occurred under state socialism in the process of industrialization, it has been especially strong where the capitalist market has developed. The risks of capitalism have increased to a qualitatively different level with the discovery of ways to manipulate nature to develop efficient transportation, information processing and communication technologies. The manipulation of nature was further refined to make nature do more work formerly done by humans, and modernization passed through a point of inflection. The conflict of generations that threatens to break out under reflexive modernization consists of a more permanent tension. The technical experts are often under great pressure to come up with methodologies yielding results favorable to prevailing political and economic interests. This provides a formidable breeding ground for shallow science, which threatens to subvert science with scope.