The Marines' second small war occurred in the Dominican Republic, overlapping in time with the Haitian campaigns. Marines were dispatched to deal with the Dominican problem at the same time others were already in Haiti. Owing to the fact that the Dominican and Haitian insurgents never cooperated, the Corps was able to concentrate on snuffing out each insurgency separately at different times. By the time the 2nd Provisional Brigade was formed in Santo Domingo in 1916, the 1st Brigade in Haiti had almost terminated the first Caco campaign. With fresh troops and only a few reserves from the 1st Brigade, the 2nd Brigade under Col. Joseph Pendleton's command was able to launch an initial concentrated effort against the Dominican insurgents. At least two of the three reasons that underpinned implementation of civil measures in Haiti—intellectual, utilitarian, and a weak manpower base—applied to the Dominican Republic as well.