In 1962 the United States launched the world's first fully active communications satellites, AT&T's Telstar, which transmitted telephone communications, data, and live television signals, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Relay Communications Satellite. Commercial satellite communications systems may be grouped into three categories: international systems, regional systems, and domestic systems, INTELSAT and INMARSAT are international satellite communications cooperatives. The basic structure of a satellite network consists of an uplink, a downlink, and a satellite. Technological innovation also allows more efficient use of the radio spectrum. The White Paper discusses US foreign policy regarding international communications satellite systems, reviews the background of INTELSAT and discusses the US role as the primary force behind the development of that organization. The domestic satellite industry exemplifies all the benefits of a competitive market. The Commission initially adopted an 'open skies' policy to facilitate the entry of qualified parties in this market.