This chapter examines the consequences of individualism and collectivism under four headings: consequences for the individual, interpersonal relations, intergroup relations, and social institutions. Among individualists the causes of "poverty" seem related to individualistic factors and among collectivists to collectivist factors. Individualists have many ingroups and enter and exit them frequently. Since individualists have to work at their relationships to maintain them, they tend to develop skills for effective superficial interaction with others. Relational equity is an important element in the management of conflict in individualistic cultures; and a communal orientation model underscores intimate conflict negotiation in many collectivist cultures. Interpersonal relations sometimes involve different assumptions in collectivist and individualistic cultures. In collectivist cultures the political system is conceived as a way to preserve the collective, often in the form of the state, but also possibly the political party. The chapter shows that the effects of individualism and collectivism on individuals, groups, organizations, and societies are manifested in various ways.