This chapter examines the advantages and disadvantages of the two cultural patterns, individualism and collectivism. Horizontal individualism goes with social democracy, or the liberal side of the Democratic party in the United States. Vertical individualism goes with free market thinking, or the right wing of the Republican party in the United States. Horizontal collectivism corresponds to kibbutz-type political entities; vertical collectivism to communalist movements. In collectivist cultures people have so many obligations toward their ingroups that they do not have the interest or energy to do volunteer work. Individualist employees are mobile, and that often makes training risky for the employer. As a society moves toward modernity, which means more individualism, time gets to be a premium. Employees get paid by the hour, and productivity is measured in units of goods or services produced or provided per hour. Mental health also requires that personal goals be compatible with the goals of our collectives.