This book explores the constructs of collectivism and individualism. Collectivists are closely linked individuals who view themselves primarily as parts of a whole, be it a family, a network of co-workers, a tribe, or a nation. Such people are mainly motivated by the norms and duties imposed by the collective entity. Individualists are motivated by their own preferences, needs, and rights, giving priority to personal rather than to group goals. Reviewing relevant literature in philosophy, political science, anthropology, sociology, and psychology, the author shows how culture shapes the way people think. He also explores the wide-ranging implications of individualism and collectivism for political, social, religious, and economic life. The author makes compelling arguments for the appreciation of both perspectives, drawing on examples from Japan, Sweden, China, Greece, Russia, the United States, and other countries. He challenges the view that psychology is universal, offering evidence for culture-specific influences on thought and action.