This chapter addresses extrahemispheric states' and Canada's policies and relationships with Latin America and the Caribbean. Writers on the region's international relations have long had an interest in the European presence. They have addressed multitudinous themes, given the long history of relations and the diverse nature of interests and activities on the part of the numerous individual states involved. Research on the policies and interactions of the Soviet Union has also been significant, with the bulk of it conducted after the Soviet attachment to the Cuban Revolution of 1959 and other activities until the end of the cold war and the breakup of the Soviet Union. Studies of the relationships of other extrahemispheric states—China, Japan, and Israel—have not been extensive because of the episodic nature of those states' policies. Research on Canada's inter-American relations was slight until that country began to increase its activity, with a subsequent rapid growth of the literature.