In many respects the opportunities afforded women after the U. S. military was formally integrated in 1973 confounded the age-old issue of what ought to be a feminist position on militarism and war. During the 1980s, pay equity was redefined by many feminists to mean not just equal pay for equal or substantially equal work but also equal compensation for jobs of "equal value" to the employer. Many feminists consider pornography to be the quintessential feminist issue since it is the primary mechanism linking sex and violence and therefore sex and control of women by men. As feminists struggled with third-generation issues, the differences that divided them were often rooted in feelings too powerful to be ignored. Women who felt passionately about peace could not bring themselves to study war and war's weapons; nor could they celebrate the integration by gender of the nation's armed forces.