This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book states that descentralización has persisted as a key element in the Mexican political discourse of the last fifteen years. It characterizes the de la Madrid government as having advocated devolution, although in practice his initiatives resulted primarily in deconcentration rather than in full devolution. The book argues that Solidarity was one of the most effective decentralizing forces ever introduced in Mexico, bringing as it did small-scale but significant investment resources to a large number of the most impoverished municipalities and communities. It also argues that retaining a decisive amount of power will be achieved by giving a share of it away-at least in the first instance. Thus far, for the first time in the transition from Reforma Municipal to Solidaridad to Nuevo Federalismo, appear to be on the threshold of a genuine process of decentralization.