The bulk of political culture research, reflecting its origins in studies of "national character," has been concerned with cross-national comparisons. A notable exception to this pattern is Daniel Elazar's pioneering work on American political subcultures. Elazar's description of the traditionalistic political culture suggests a strong affinity with the way of life we have termed hierarchical. Elazar's moralistic political culture is the most ambiguous of his three categories. The confusion begins with the label "moralistic," which suggests that moralism is the peculiar province of one political culture. Elazar argues that the political cultures of moralism and individualism represent "two contrasting conceptions of the American political order." Politics, from the communitarian perspective, is ideally a matter of concern for every citizen, not just for those who are professionally committed to political careers. Elazar is correct in calling attention to the deep suspicion of competitive individualism that existed in Massachusetts political culture.