U. S. colonial officials demonstrated an unwavering resolve to impose their political values and cultural standards on Puerto Rico. Puerto Rican reaction to colonial rule was an intricate interplay of accommodation and resistance. Some Puerto Ricans cooperated willingly with the new colonizers, whereas others challenged them. Temporary alliances among the parties, ideological clashes within party organizations, defections, and the establishment of new political forces, all came into play during the volatile period before the passage of the Jones Act. Colonial officials were determined to promote local political leaders who would assist them in carrying out the Americanization process. The Federals orchestrated a campaign of noncooperation, public criticism, protest designed to complicate the task of colonial management and undermine the Americanization process. The leadership of the Federal Party had cultivated a combative and independent political culture during their years of resistance against Spanish colonial rule. The Foraker Act centralized financial administration exclusively in the office of the treasury and the auditor.