This book concludes that frictions between Islam and the West are likely to interact with broader cleavages along North-South lines, between haves and have-nots. Indeed, Islam could serve as a rallying cry of the economic have-nots across the Muslim world against what is seen as Western domination of the post—Cold War economic and political order. The acquisition of weapons of mass destruction and the means for their delivery at longer ranges has emerged as a leading symbol and instrument of the drive for geostrategic weight among regional powers in the post–Cold War world. The linkage of radical Islam with other ideologies that challenge the prevailing international order is a distinct possibility despite the lack of a strong redistributive tradition within Islam. The rise of political Islam will pose a continuing dilemma for policy makers concerned with the promotion of democracy and human rights.