The strategy that Gandhi used against the British shifted the boundaries by introducing religion into the political arena and rejecting notions of calculation, interest, and compromise. He risked chaos. In the contest between the Indian Freedom Fighters and the British, there was no overarching set of formally stated normative conventions agreed by both sides. Indian independence was a revolutionary cause, potentially a bringer of chaos. Each side had its own version of what normative rules of government should prevail, and each developed a set of strategic rules to make its version dominant. None of the strategies Gandhi used against the British offended his own strongly held and clearly proclaimed normative principles. At the higher levels of their administration, the same might be said of the British. The English Revolution of 1688 removed the Stuart dynasty and replaced it with the House of Orange and was extremely violent.