ABSTRACT

The adjective civil separates non-military from military employees of the state. When applied to behavior, the word has a different cluster of meanings: polite, proper, not aggressive, obliging, cooperative, helpful, considerate, not rough, likely to do nothing disturbing or unexpected, following the conventions, and so on. Bureaucrats run bureaux, offices that deal with a specific branch of government: judicial, trade and commerce, law enforcement, education, public health, foreign affairs, and the like. The politician is boss, the civil servant takes orders. But orders are nothing until they are implemented and that process can effectively negate the politician's intentions. India became independent in 1947 after more than fifty years of struggle by the Indian Congress Movement to oust the British, who had been India's rulers for almost two centuries. Orissa's politicians at that time spoke of the "Freedom Fight". Public pride in achievement confronted private disillusion and a complaining insistence that more should have been done.