Arithmetic teaching is concerned with the application of the number system to the arrangement, manipulation and measurement of quantities and the development of the ability to deal with number relationships symbolically and by abstraction. Number is concerned with the quantitative relationships within and between groups, and the number system is designed to help us put order into the numerical situations we meet in our everyday environment. An understanding by the child of the number system and number operations is essential if meaningful learning is to be achieved. Graded exercises which ask the children to classify objects are useful since classification plays an important part in number. The development of number readiness is obviously related to maturation but our work with ESN children convinces us that, because of their lack of adequate pre-number experiences, the stages of readiness can be hastened.