Of central concern in a hostage-taking situation, but one often overlooked by negotiators, is the hostage(s). Normal people going about their normal lives are suddenly and violently detained and imprisoned by a violent person with weapons. The risk of imminent death is high, and emotions in the hostage are as high as those of their captors. The hostages are also in a crisis. Negotiators have a responsibility to communicate and manage crisis just as they do with the hostage taker. This chapter presents the etiology of being taken hostage. The difference between hostages and victims is examined. The Stockholm Syndrome is explained and reasons it is not always present are given. Even in its absence, the negotiator can engage in strategies to help personalize hostages to the hostage taker and reduce risk. The effects on a person of being taken hostage are presented and described, including psychological effects, coping mechanisms, adaptation and defense mechanisms, and Strentz’s typology of survivors and succumbers. Once released from captivity, hostages can and will continue to experience effects of captivity. It is important negotiators understand these short- and long-term effects and how to help ex-hostages. The aftereffects discussed include emotional, cognitive, behavioral, physical, medical, and positive. There may be times when a person is “hidden” within the area and unknown to the hostage taker. Strategies for dealing with these persons to keep them safe and unknown to the hostage taker are discussed. For much of the discussion in this chapter, the extensive research into ex-POWs is extrapolated to criminal hostage-taking events.