Actors’ and nation-states’ visions for renewable energy transformations go far beyond the technical to encompass a vision of a desirable society. Analysis of sociotechnical imaginaries and of sociotechnical visions can aid in understanding the early phases of changes in energy systems. Sustainability and sustainable development connect to visions, as sustainability is intricately interwoven with temporality and intergenerational justice. Analysis of visions provides an understanding of how state and society define sustainable development, whereas the concepts of social sustainability and energy justice aid in thinking through what a desirable energy future would be on the basis of reasoned principles. This chapter defines the concept of an energy transformation and provides four overarching scenarios for energy transformation pathways: extreme fossil fuel transition, transformation to fully distributed renewable energy, transformation to a blend of distributed and centralized renewable energy, and transformation to a transnational renewable energy grid. Three major trends shape these potential pathways: Nation-state and international policy goals to scale up renewable energy, deregulation of electricity, and emergence of electricity grids and markets that cross nation-state borders. This chapter describes the multi-scalar methodology on energy transformations used in this study. Finally, it summarizes the rest of the chapters in the book.