This chapter describes ‘Cultural Management 1.0’, starting with early attempts to impose management discipline onto creative people and organisations in the 1980s. The chapter describes three assumptions which lie behind Cultural Management 1.0. Firstly, Cultural Management 1.0 considers management as a battle between freedom and control, in which creative processes are essentially unmanageable. Secondly, Cultural Management 1.0 assumes that creativity depends upon intrinsic motivation – and that the imposition of external constraints and extrinsic rewards will undermine the integrity of internally driven creative processes. Thirdly, Cultural Management 1.0 assumes that creative processes and outcomes are the product of a small number of talented creative individuals. These assumptions are challenged in the chapter – and will eventually be reversed by Cultural Management 2.0 as discussed in the next chapter. At the same time, the focus on intrinsic motivation has some value, particularly for certain phases in the creative process and certain types of organisation and people. The positive contribution of Cultural Management 1.0 will be picked up in the final chapter of this book.