The responsible conduct of research has again become an issue for the American scientific community both for science in general and for economics in particular. From the 1970s through the 1990s, the sciences in America and elsewhere seemed to experience an earlier wave of episodes of scientific misconduct. The most recently reported rise in scientific misconduct will be termed the “millennial wave” and what happened previously was the “late 20th wave” of scientific misbehavior. Beyond the conduct of the individual scientist lies the scientific community. In the United States, scientific misconduct came to be defined in three separate major categories as: fabrication of data and results, falsification of data in one way or another, and plagiarism. The episode of apparent scientific misconduct which drew the most attention over a period of many years was the one named for its most renowned co-author, David Baltimore.