An economic view of replication failure in science suggests that error and mistakes are a constant aspect of the scientific endeavor. An economic theory of replication failure implies that the continuous presence of faulty research is a byproduct of scarce resources being focused on a quest for innovative discoveries. Fraud in science, like replication failure, can be understood as an economic phenomenon. An economic approach raises the possibility of systematically categorizing a range of different forms of individual scientific activity ranging from questionable practices and sloppiness with some being almost routine in nature while others are extraordinary and the scientific equivalent of being “criminal” in nature. The subject of criminal-like behavior in science leads back to strategic behaviors and crime and to game theory. If there are episodes of scientific misconduct which rise to the level of criminal or criminal-like acts, then these quite devious behaviors may be just as strategic as ethically appropriate scientific conduct.