C. S. Peirce had an unusual life-long interest in the accuracy and replicability of research as embodied in his economy of research and he also clashed with some of the most prominent academic leaders and scientists of that era who maligned his integrity to an excessive degree. In the 1890s after retiring from the Coast Survey, Peirce became involved with research in the history of science, mathematics, and philosophy. Throughout his career, Peirce had been concerned with some of the most prominent figures of western civilization and he kept lists of several hundred names of those worthy of being on that list. Peirce maintains that scientific progress occurs in the long run and that scientists must be methodical in their investigations to lessen the expenses associated with research. For Peirce, the value of a hypothesis depends on how close it is to the truth.