This chapter provides an overview of issues related to research and evaluation in Adventure Therapy (AT), explains the role that research and evaluation plays in the development of AT theory, and presents the outcomes or effects of AT reported in the literature. It deals with a discussion of future directions, including necessary steps that AT needs to take in order to be considered an evidence-based practice in the eyes of federal funding agencies like the National Institutes of Health and professional associations like the American Psychological Association. In addition to enhancing AT practice, other reasons for stakeholders in AT to strive for Evidenced Based Practice include seeking funding and support for the design, implementation, and evaluation of AT interventions. The chapter examines research in AT that specifically focused on: adventure or challenge-based courses of a variety of lengths and wilderness therapy interventions, in which nature and wilderness expeditions are reasoned to play a key factor in effectuating change in clients.