Abstraction is a Tier 2 Method (T2M) used to examine whether a component of a starting point can be replaced with a similar component to produce higher value. The logic is that by replacing a component with a similar, yet slightly different component, explorers can identify solutions that provide alternative embodiments, increase efficacy and provider surpluses, and reduce undesirable side effects. Typically, this T2M leads to ending points that satisfy the same customer needs as the starting point. This chapter discusses 7 T3Ms organized based on the specific search variables into three categories. The first category focuses on modifying human components. The second category focuses on changing the function, where the replacement is either better or worse, compared with the original component. The third category focuses on non-functional aspects, where the replacement is functionally equivalent to the original component.