ABSTRACT

This chapter argues that with the 1991 Gulf War acting as a trigger, the international norm of making military contributions by dispatching military personnel found a place in Japanese society. Focusing on the debates that took place during and after the Gulf War, the chapter explains how the international norm of making military contributions came to prevail in Japan and precipitated the adoption of the Peacekeeping Cooperation Bill. It also examines the process of localisation, that is to say, how the international norm came to coexist with the domestic norm despite the fact that the two seemed mutually incompatible. The chapter contends that Japan’s decision to participate in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations was driven by the localisation of the international norm.