This chapter draws on relevant ecosocialist writings and on academic literature from a range of discipline areas to locate ecosocialist struggles for climate justice within the wider context of dominant social forces in the current world order. The ecological neo-Gramscian analytical framework is applied under sub-headings that reflect a dialectical analysis which shifts the focus of the discussion from how social systems affect the biosphere to how the changed biosphere affects social systems. Reversing the dominant view of mainstream economists that ‘nature’ is a passive element and a ‘subset’ of the economy (which is also a normative perspective adopted by political leaders, policymakers, and many academics – including IR and IPE theorists), in the MHS Forces Redux II framework the capitalist mode of production dominating the global economy is understood as necessarily existing within the Earth’s biosphere (or ‘nature’). The global economy, like all social systems, is thus recognised as being subject to the restrictions of the objective laws of physics that living within a natural biosphere impose. The relationship between the Earth’s biosphere and human production and reproduction is, moreover, part of a single complex and evolving dynamic system: while the productive and reproductive capabilities of all life forms are embedded within the confines of the biosphere, in a global economy where the capitalist mode of production dominates a relatively small proportion of humans benefit from productive activities that radically change this biosphere, and the transformed biosphere in turn affects the productive and reproductive capabilities of all life forms (including the vast majority of humans who are not responsible for the damage to the biosphere). The analysis presented in this chapter emphasises the ways in which changes in the biosphere impact on the material reproductive and productive capabilities of the humans and social systems embedded in it, thus providing a case study demonstrating the utility of the ecological neo-Gramscian theoretical perspective at the world order level.