In the introductory Chapter, I consider the problem of moral panic in relation to the analysis of online risks for young people. I first explain what a “moral panic” is and cite some examples of the demonization of new technologies by the media, parents, and even academics. I then explore, primarily from an evolutionary point of view, the psychological and cultural reasons for why people have engaged in moral panics through the ages and why such panics have tended to focus on young people and innovative social activities. However, I also suggest that it is important to avoid going too far in the other direction by dismissing all concerns of parents, educators, and adolescents themselves as mere scaremongering. A few examples are provided that show how scientific responses to moral panics about new technology have often expressed skepticism about online risks, without providing much in the way of concrete solutions to the issues that are worrying people. Finally, the structure of the rest of the book will be outlined, covering three key types of risks and opportunities associated with behavioral changes in adolescence: those associated with new identity, new content, and new interactions.