This chapter addresses ethnic minority issues in China from a linguistic and ethnographic perspective, providing a case study on the reconstruction of ethnic identity in relation to ethnic conflicts, government accountability, cultural assimilation, and economic development. It examines the complex concepts of the Chinese nation and ethnic minorities in contemporary China. The chapter describes the background to the cultural reconstruction campaign for ethnic minorities in China, highlighting the multiple perceptions of ethnic identity construction. Then the chapter concludes with the research aims, the methodology of linguistic ethnography, and an outline of the organisation of the book. Drawing on archival material and interviews with officials from local government and various organisations, it describes the perceptions and practices adopted by local government in its attempt to reconstruct the Kam people's ethnic identity.