This chapter discusses the social and cultural history of the Kam community in China, especially its interactions with the state or central government at different periods. It examines how these interactions have impacted on its ethnic identity construction and presents a case study of Zhanli village in Guizhou Province to illustrate the key themes. The social changes that accompanied the tidal wave of migrant labour and the mass migration of Kam people after the 1980s took three main forms. In addition, with the upsurge in rural tourism and ethnic tourism in the Kam areas in recent years, more Kam people have become active participants in the tourism economy. In the Northern Kam areas, which have been under greater influence of Mandarin Chinese, most Kam people have lost the ability to speak their mother tongue.