This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book explores the theory of spontaneous order in the context of considerations about the nature of social phenomena. It presents a reflection on the links between the theory of spontaneous order, associated mainly with economics, and particular disciplines of social sciences, including political science. The book provides a brief historical outline of the development of the idea of spontaneous order, with particular emphasis on the influence of the Austrian School of Economics. It presents the theory of spontaneous order. The book focuses on its epistemological assumptions. It discusses the category of human action, which constitutes the praxeological basis of the theory, and the issue of methodological individualism and subjectivism along with an attempt to provide a synthesis of social individualism, an approach formed within the framework of this theory.