The existence of human cognitive limitations determines the availability of information that affects the actions taken by individuals. Thus, these limitations determine the human ability to form social structures and provide a basis for reflection on the emergence of spontaneous order. This indicates the fundamental role of cognitive science in describing and studying social phenomena. It also turns the problem of human cognitive boundaries into a crucial issue in thinking within the spontaneous order theory.

This chapter analyses human cognition by starting from the human cognitive apparatus model based on Hayek’s concept of the sensual order. It proves that this model justifies the methodological assumptions of subjectivism and anti-naturalism adopted by the spontaneous order theory. In the context of cognitive science, the dynamic and evolutionary nature of Hayek’s sensual order also implies a convergence of this order with the approach formed within the paradigm of the embodied-embedded mind. The chapter points out that such a concept of mind also constitutes a rejection of the approach of evolutionary psychology as neglecting the issue of individual self-awareness and the role of man as an object of cognition.