This chapter presents the picture of social reality formulated by the theory of spontaneous order. It indicates that this theory not only provides a tool for describing and explaining social phenomena, but also shows that research on unplanned social structures is a fundamental task of all social sciences. Grounding the theory in the existence of human cognitive limitations makes it possible to explain the emergence and functioning of unplanned institutions and structures as resulting from the process of adaptation of individuals to local circumstances. It also indicates the existence of human limitations in the extent of the deliberate shaping of the social order. Consequently, the spontaneous order theory rejects the perspective that institutions making up the society are, or should be, the product of a deliberate plan. Moreover, complex social structures can only arise as unintended effects of human actions. The chapter also indicates possible reasons for seeing institutions as intentional human creations. It also criticises the approach of constructivist rationalism and indicates the normative implications of the theory of spontaneous order and its relationship to liberalism.