Psychotherapies and clinical psychology today usually assume the first of these discourses in the background, whereas psychiatry makes stronger claims about the brain as the future site of understanding ‘mental health’ issues. Many factors obviously would contribute to something like the invention/discovery of psychology and psychotherapies. When the medical faculty of the hospital in the French city of Nancy took up hypnotism, about 1880, Hippolyte Bernheim v was very enthusiastic, and soon became one of the leaders of the investigation. Since Freud there have been many variations on the way he created a new discourse about these mystifying symptoms arising from hidden forces. The medical discourse in the early 1900s, that the new and inexplicable symptoms were a result of (unknown) brain or neurological damage, was continued strongly by Emil Kraepelin and others and led to the DSM approach to ‘mental illness’ still used in psychiatry and clinical psychology today.