This chapter explores regional characteristics, traits, and customs in Japan with the goal of dispelling any notion of a homogenous food culture. The Kanto and Kansai divide represents the broadest regional division originating in the realm of politics and economy in which these two areas were historical rivals. With Kyoto the historical capital and Tokyo the modern-day center, the division still endures somewhat, while both regions maintain status for their respective pasts. Today, differences are found in two distinct preparations of many food products. Regional culinary traditions differ from the subarctic in northern Hokkaido to the subtropics of Okinawa. The Ainu of Hokkaido, with their historical ties to the Soviet Union, and the Ryukyuans of Okinawa, with close ties to China, could not be more distinct. Every region celebrates with seasonal festivals that typically boast local specialties.