Truly horrible drums are impossible to rescue, and sample replacement is not suitable or appropriate for many musical styles. It can take drummers many years to master drum tuning, and in the process they develop their own technique and sound. This chapter provides an understanding of the concepts and process so that one can make a recording of acceptable quality. The fundamental frequency of a drum is the lowest pitch one should hear when both heads are tuned, free to vibrate, and the drum is struck in the middle of the top head. Each drum has a preferred tuning range that is dictated by the size of the drum, and the thickness and materials used for the head and shell. Trying to tune a drum outside of its effective range produces poor results- dead drum sounds, excess ringing and overtones, no stick rebound etc.