American politics is more deeply divided along party lines now than it has been in more than a century. Substantial proportions of Americans not only disagree with the other party’s policies, but even view them as “so misguided that they threaten the nation’s well-being.” Americans have expressed suspicion of political parties, if not outright hostility, long before the current partisan polarization. George Washington declared in his Farewell Address that “the spirit of party” was the “worst enemy” of popular government. The Progressive movement of the late 1800s and early 1900s, which promoted voter registration and the use of primary elections to nominate candidates, strengthened the case for including a citizen base in a definition of American parties. Party organizations write the party’s rules and raise its funds. The party in government consists of the candidates for public office and those who hold office, whether elected or appointed, who share a party label.