ABSTRACT

The concluding chapter summarizes the results of the investigation of contacts among the Scandinavians, Rus’ and steppe people, especially the Khazars, Volga Bulghars, Pechenegs, and Magyars, but also others, during the Viking Age (c. 750–1050). The relevant contact spheres – war, trade, military co-operation, customs and religion, and communication – will be reviewed and integrated. The Eurasian steppes were among the important contact zones of the Viking diaspora and co-operation with the steppe people was significant enough to be felt even in some parts of (mainly eastern) Scandinavia. The “Vikings of the steppe” developed new hybrid identities as a result of close contact with Turkic cultures, thus adding Rus’ groups to Viking-Age networks of warfare, trade, and communication. The aftermath of these contacts for the Hungarians will also be discussed briefly as they remained on the political scene of medieval Europe even after the Viking Age and had sporadic contacts with Scandinavia. Possible scenarios will be raised for potential future research: a theoretical approach to the “steppe experience” could further refine the Viking diaspora as showing both cultural unity and difference.