“Laying the Groundwork” looks closely at the early history of jazz (or what was perceived as jazz) in Portugal and its presence in other media: press, cinema and radio. Jazz developed mainly within the private sphere in the major urban and coastal areas. However, under the New State regime, nationalist cultural symbols were amplified, and a colonial mentality was cultivated to legitimise authoritarian power both domestically and in the overseas colonies. Such nationalist discourse posed a threat to new forms of entertainment from abroad, particularly jazz and modern dances. In the aftermath of World War II, under US influence and very much led by the key figure of Luís Villas-Boas, a jazz scene emerged in Lisbon, which included the foundation of the Hot Clube de Portugal.